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  1. Hidden Lives Revealed - Poverty and Families in the Victorian Era
  2. 10 of the Worst Jobs in the Victorian Era
  3. Black Londoners 1800-1900

Following the Great Stink of Parliament finally gave consent for the MBW to construct a massive system of sewers. The engineer put in charge of building the new system was Joseph Bazalgette. When the London sewerage system was completed, the death toll in London dropped dramatically, and epidemics were curtailed. Bazalgette's system is still in use today. While the problems of disposal of sewage and human waste were much improved by the late 19th century, there also remained problems of sanitation on the streets of London.

Chadwick attributed the spread of disease to this filth, advocating improved water supplies and drains, and criticising the inefficient system of labourers and street sweepers then employed to maintain cleanliness. The result was the passing of the Public Health Act , which placed the responsibility for street cleansing, paving, sewers, and water supply on the municipal boroughs rather than on property owners.

Hidden Lives Revealed - Poverty and Families in the Victorian Era

The weakness of the Act was that it did not compel the boroughs to act, but merely provided the framework for doing so. More comprehensive and forceful legislation was passed by Parliament with the Public Health Acts of and The last Act compelled the boroughs to provide adequate drainage, required all new housing to be built with running water, and required all streets to be equipped with lighting and pavements. These authorities were more comprehensive than their predecessors, equipped with teams of medical officers and health inspectors who ensured food safety standards were met and actively prevented outbreaks of disease.

Atmospheric pollution caused by burning cheap soft coal created the city's notorious pea soup fog. Air pollution from burning wood or coal was nothing new to London - complaints about the city's dirty atmosphere exist as far back as the 13th century [] - but the population explosion and industrialisation of the 19th century aggravated both the severity of the fogs and their lethal effects on Londoners.

The fogs were at their worst in the month of November, but could appear frequently throughout the autumn and winter. Sulphur dioxide and soot emitted from chimneys mixed with the natural vapour of the Thames Valley to form a layer of greasy, acrid mist that shrouded the city up to feet 75 metres above street level. Conditions for pedestrians were extremely dangerous: in , nineteen deaths were attributed to accidental drowning from victims who fell into the Thames, canals, or docks during foggy weather.

Charles Dickens Jr. As the east wind brings up the exhalations of the Essex and Kentish marshes, and as the damp-laden winter air prevents the dispersion of the partly consumed carbon from hundreds of thousands of chimneys, the strangest atmospheric compound known to science fills the valley of the Thames. At such times almost all the senses have their share of trouble. Not only does a strange and worse than Cimmerian darkness hide familiar landmarks from the sight, but the taste and sense of smell are offended by an unhallowed compound of flavours, and all things become greasy and clammy to the touch.

During the continuance of a real London fog—which may be black, or grey, or more probably orange-coloured—the happiest man is he who can stay at home Nothing could be more deleterious to the lungs and the air-passages than the wholesale inhalation of the foul air and floating carbon which, combined, form a London fog. There was wide awareness of the deleterious health effects of extended fogs in London, particularly upon those suffering from respiratory illnesses.

Pollution and a smoky atmosphere prevailed at all times of year because of industrial activity and the sheer concentration of domestic fires: an estimated 3. The smoky atmosphere meant that skin and clothing were quickly dirtied just by walking on the street. Many famous buildings and landmarks of London were constructed during the 19th century including:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Part of a series on the. Further information: Port of London.


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  4. Slums and Slumming in Late-Victorian London.
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Further information: Economic history of the United Kingdom. Further information: St. Giles, London. Further information: Trams in London. Further information: History of the London Underground. Unfinished Empire. Bloomsbury Press.

A vision of Britain through time. Retrieved 19 November Bartholomew The Pocket Atlas and Guide to London.


  • Harrowing images of Victorian beggars reveal 1800s poverty;
  • Seven Days to Heaven.
  • East End of London?
  • Les caves du Majestic (French Edition).
  • The Great World of London. British Library. Retrieved The London Compendium Revised Edition. Hand-Book of London. University of North Carolina Pembroke. The Rise and Fall of the British Empire. Martin's Griffin.

    10 of the Worst Jobs in the Victorian Era

    Imlah Economic History Review. Blanchard, H. Kains Jackson The British Library. Retrieved 7 June Writing Britain: Wastelands to Wonderlands. The Guardian.

    Black Londoners 1800-1900

    The London Compendium. Victorian London.

    themisanthropelondon.com/fyxuk-hidroxicloroquina-tienda-online.php London: The Biography. Museum of London. The People of the Abyss. Dickens's Dictionary of London. Mary's, Islington, Middlesex, London". The Leisure Hour. Chapter III, Barrett London and Londoners in the Eighteen-Fifties and Sixties. Gordon The Horse World of London. Cruchley Cruchley's London for A Handbook for Strangers.

    Institution of Civil Engineers. Ellis Ellis' British Railway Engineering Encyclopaedia. London's Metropolitan Railway. The London Encyclopaedia 3rd ed. Retrieved 18 December Engineering and Technology. Survey of London Vol. Old and New London Vol. Chapter XL, — Electricity Council. Crossing the River. Curiosities of London. London County Council. Godfrey, eds. Retrieved 17 December Wonders of World Engineering.

    One had served in the European Theater and the other served in the Pacific Theater.